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Derecho de Petición


El derecho de petición es el que toda persona tiene para presentar solicitudes ante las autoridades o ante ciertos particulares y obtener de ellos una pronta resolución sobre lo solicitado. El artículo 23 de la Constitución de 1.991 estableció: "Toda persona tiene derecho a presentar peticiones respetuosas a las autoridades por motivos de interés general o particular y a obtener pronta resolución…”

 

 

¿Qué es el derecho de petición? 

El derecho de petición es el que toda persona tiene para presentar solicitudes

antelas autoridades o ante ciertos particulares y obtener de ellos una pronta

resolución sobre lo solicitado. 

 

¿Está consagrado el derecho de petición en la Constitución Política de

Colombia? 

Sí. El artículo 23 estableció: "Toda persona tiene derecho a presentar peticiones

respetuosas a las autoridades por motivos de interés general o particular y a obtener

pronta resolución…” 

¿En que forma se puede hacer una petición? 

Verbalmente o por escrito. 

¿Qué deben contener las peticiones escritas? 

La persona o entidad a la cual se dirige; qué solicita; el motivo por el cual la hace;

nombre, documento de identidad y dirección en la cual recibirá la respuesta. 

¿Cuanto tiempo tiene la entidad para contestar? 

Quince (15) días hábiles siguientes a la fecha de su recibo. Cuando la entidad no

pueda resolver o contestar la petición en dicho plazo, deberá informar a la persona

interesada, expresando los motivos de la demora y señalando la fecha en que se

resolverá o dará respuesta. 

¿Y si la petición se hizo en forma verbal? 

Cuando la petición haya sido verbal, la decisión podrá tomarse y comunicarse en la

misma forma a la persona interesada. En los demás casos será escrita. 

¿Ante quién se puede ejercer el derecho de petición? 

El derecho de petición se puede ejercer ante:

 

_ Las autoridades.

 

_ Los particulares que presten un servicio público o actúen o deban actuar en

 

desarrollo de funciones públicas.

El legislador podrá reglamentar el ejercicio del derecho de petición ante las

organizaciones privadas para garantizar los derechos fundamentales. 

 

¿Con qué finalidad pueden presentarse las peticiones ante las

autoridades? 

Las peticiones pueden presentarse: 

 

_ Para que por motivos de interés general o particular se inicie por las

 

autoridades una actuación administrativa. 

 

_ Para que por motivos de interés general o particular las autoridades permitan

 

el acceso a la información sobre las acciones por ellas desarrolladas. 

 

_ Para que por motivos de interés general o particular las autoridades permitan

 

conocer documentos no reservados u obtener copias de los mismos. 

 

_ Para que por motivos de interés general o particular se den por las

autoridades dictámenes o conceptos sobre asuntos de su competencia. 

¿Hay límites al acceso de documentos públicos? 

Sí. El derecho de acceso a documentos públicos puede ampararse bajo reserva en

los casos que establezca la ley. Los funcionarios públicos están autorizados para no

permitir el acceso a aquellos documentos que sean reservados.

El carácter reservado de un documento no será oponible a las autoridades que lo

soliciten en el debido ejercicio de sus funciones, sin embargo, les corresponde a

dichas autoridades asegurar su reserva. 

¿Qué deben contener las peticiones escritas en interés general? 

Las peticiones escritas deberán contener por lo menos: 

 

_ La designación de la autoridad a la que se dirigen. 

 

_ Los nombres y apellidos completos del solicitante y de su representante o

 

apoderado sí es el caso, con indicación de los documentos de identidad y sus

 

direcciones. 

 

_ El objeto de la petición. 

 

_ Las razones en que se apoya. 

 

_ La relación de documentos que se acompañan. 

_ La firma del peticionario, cuando fuere el caso. 

 

¿Se pueden exigir requisitos especiales para dar trámite a algunas peticiones?

 Sí. Conforme a la ley las autoridades pueden exigir algunos requisitos especiales,

como por ejemplo: que ciertas peticiones se presenten por escrito; que se acrediten

algunos requisitos para iniciar o adelantar actuaciones administrativas, en cuyo caso

la relación de todos éstos deberá fijarse en un lugar visible al público de la entidad.

Sin embargo, la Constitución Política establece que cuando un derecho o una

actividad hayan sido reglamentados de manera general, las autoridades públicas no

podrán establecer ni exigir permisos, licencias o requisitos adicionales para su

ejercicio.

Las constancias, certificaciones o documentos que los servidores o autoridades

tengan, o que puedan conseguir en los archivos de la respectiva entidad no serán

exigidos a los particulares. 

¿Qué nombres reciben los diferentes tipos de peticiones? 

Las peticiones se denominan: 

_ Quejas, cuando ponen en conocimiento de las autoridades conductas

irregulares de empleados oficiales o de particulares a quienes se ha atribuido

o adjudicado la prestación de un servicio público. 

_ Reclamos, cuando se da a las autoridades noticia de la suspensión injustificada

o de la prestación deficiente de un servicio público. 

_ Manifestaciones, cuando hacen llegar a las autoridades la opinión del peticionario

sobre una materia sometida a actuación administrativa. 

_ Peticiones de información, cuando se formulan a las autoridades para que

éstas:

Den a conocer cómo han actuado en un caso concreto.

Permitan el acceso a los documentos públicos que tienen en su poder.

Expidan copia de documentos que reposan en una oficina pública. 

_ Consultas, cuando se presentan a las autoridades para que manifiesten su

parecer sobre materias relacionadas con sus atribuciones.

 

¿Qué términos tienen las autoridades para dar respuesta a las peticiones?

 

Por regla general las autoridades tienen:

 

_ Quince (15) días para contestar quejas, reclamos y manifestaciones. 

 

_ Diez (10) días para contestar peticiones de información. 

_ Treinta (30) días para contestar consultas.

 

Los anteriores plazos son los máximos, pués, todo servidor público tiene el deber de

 

actuar frente a las peticiones con celeridad y eficacia. 

¿Se puede desistir de las peticiones? 

Sí. El solicitante puede desistir de las peticiones, en forma expresa cuando el

peticionario así lo manifieste y en forma tácita cuando conforme a la ley opere la

presunción de desistimiento. No obstante lo anterior, las autoridades de oficio

podrán continuar con la actuación si la consideran necesaria para el interés público. 

¿Cómo debe ser la resolución a una petición? 

La resolución a una petición debe ser: 

 

_ Adecuada a la solicitud planteada. 

 

_ Efectiva para la definición del caso respectivo. 

 

_ Oportuna, es decir dentro de los términos establecidos en la ley.

¿Se conculca el derecho de petición con la ocurrencia del silencio

administrativo? 

Sí. De acuerdo con la jurisprudencia de la Corte Constitucional la falta de resolución

o la resolución tardía son formas de violación del derecho de petición, no obstante

las consecuencias jurídicas del silencio administrativo. 

 

¿Qué consecuencias trae para las autoridades el retardo injustificado en la

atención de peticiones? 

Ese retardo injustificado es motivo de sanción disciplinaria, pues incurren en causal

de mala conducta los servidores públicos que sin razones válidas incumplen los

términos para resolver o contestar una petición. 

 

¿Qué pueden hacer quienes ven amenazado o vulnerado su derecho de

petición? 

Cuando por acción u omisión de las autoridades o de los particulares que presten un

servicio público o actúen o deban actuar en desarrollo de funciones públicas

vulneren o amenazan el derecho constitucional de petición, la persona afectada

puede ejercer la acción de tutela para reclamar ante los jueces la protección

inmediata de su derecho. 

 

¿Qué actividad desarrollan la defensoría del pueblo y las personerías

municipales en materia de derecho de petición? 

 

_ Tramita las peticiones que se le formulan. 

 

_ Asesora a las personas para el ejercicio y protección del derecho.

 

_ Recibe las quejas sobre amenaza o vulneración del derecho. 

 

_ Realiza labores de mediación tendientes a garantizar el ejercicio de ese

 

derecho.

 

_ Mantiene todas las atribuciones como titular de la acción de tutela ante la

amenaza o vulneración del derecho de petición. 

¿Para que sirve el derecho de petición en asuntos de salud? 

Para pedir el número de semanas cotizadas a una EPS, copias de la historia clínica,

que se lleve a cabo un procedimiento o examen diagnóstico o prueba de laboratorio,

pedir que expliquen la razón por la cual niegan servicios, certificar el diagnóstico de

una persona, explicación del progreso de una enfermedad, cuales alternativas

terapéuticas existen, cuales van a realizar, los nombres del grupo de salud que

atiende a una persona, iniciar una investigación en contra de alguna persona de la

EPS, IPS, ESE, ESS, ARS, hospital, centro asistencial o personal de salud, solicitar

 

medicamentos, pedir tratamiento con medicinas alternativas.


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