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Acción de Cumplimiento


Es la garantía constitucional que pueden ejercer todas las personas para que la autoridad judicial competente ordene el cumplimiento de una norma con fuerza material de ley o de un acto administrativo.

¿Qué es la acción de cumplimiento?

 

Es la garantía constitucional que pueden ejercer todas las personas para que la

autoridad judicial competente ordene el cumplimiento de una norma con fuerza

material de ley o de un acto administrativo. El ejercicio de la acción de cumplimiento

se encuentra reglamentado en la (Ley 393 de 1997).

"Toda persona podrá acudir ante la autoridad judicial para hacer efectivo el

cumplimiento de una ley o acto administrativo. En caso de prosperar la acción, la

sentencia ordenará a la autoridad renuente el cumplimiento del deber omitido".

(Constitución Política, Art. 87). 

Es una petición que se hace a las autoridades para que cumplan lo ordenado en

leyes, decretos, actos administrativos, ordenanzas de las Asambleas y Acuerdos de

Concejos Municipales. Para todos los casos se puede solicitar cumplimiento,

 
excepto cuando las normas establezcan gastos. 

¿En qué casos resulta procedente acudir a la acción de cumplimiento? 

La acción de cumplimiento procede en los siguientes casos: 

_ Cuando una autoridad incurre en acciones u omisiones con las cuales se

produce el incumplimiento de una norma con fuerza material de ley o de un

acto administrativo; 

_ Cuando una autoridad realiza actos o ejecuta hechos de los cuales se deduce

el inminente incumplimiento de una de aquellas normas o actos; 

_ Cuando un particular que actúe o deba actuar en ejercicio de funciones

públicas incurre en acciones u omisiones con las cuales se produce la

inobservancia de una de esas normas o actos cuyo cumplimiento se puede

reclamar. 

¿Cómo funciona? 

Puede ser presentada por cualquier ciudadano, una organización social e incluso un

menor de edad. Los siguientes son los pasos a dar: 

Paso 1. Se presenta un Derecho de Petición de Cumplimiento ante quien deba

cumplir la norma, como por ejemplo, el alcalde, el gobernador, el director regional o

seccional de un instituto descentralizado (SENA, ICBF, etc.) un secretario de

gabinete, un ministro, un inspector de Policía, incluso un particular que ejerza

funciones públicas. 

Paso 2. Si el funcionario cumple lo pedido, se ha logrado el objetivo. En caso

contrario, se presenta ante el Tribunal Contencioso Administrativo de su

departamento o distrito, una Acción de Cumplimiento. En lenguaje sencillo, es

pedirle al Tribunal Contencioso Administrativo que ordene al funcionario el

cumplimiento de la Ley, Decreto o similar. 

¿En qué casos es improcedente acudir a la acción de cumplimiento? 

No es procedente recurrir a la acción de cumplimiento en los siguientes casos: 

_ Cuando se trate de salvaguardar los derechos que pueden ser protegidos

mediante la acción de tutela. 

_ Cuando exista otro medio de defensa judicial para lograr el efectivo

cumplimiento de la norma o del acto administrativo, excepto que se trate de

evitar un perjuicio grave e inminente. 

_ Cuando se trate de buscar el cumplimiento de normas que establezcan

gastos; 

_ Cuando se pretenda buscar la indemnización de los perjuicios causados por

el incumplimiento de una norma con fuerza material de ley o de un acto

administrativo. 

¿Quién puede ejercer la acción de cumplimiento?

 Cualquier persona puede ejercerla acción de cumplimiento. También pueden

ejercerla: 

_ Los servidores públicos, en especial el Procurador General de la Nación, los

procuradores delegados, regionales y provinciales, el Defensor del Pueblo y

sus delegados, los personeros, el Contralor General de la República y los

contralores departamentales, distritales y municipales 

_ Las organizaciones sociales 

_ Las organizaciones no gubernamentales. 

¿Qué debe contener la solicitud de una acción de cumplimiento? 

La solicitud de una acción de cumplimiento debe contener: 

_ El nombre, identificación y lugar de residencia de la persona que instaura la

acción. 

_ La indicación de la norma o del acto administrativo cuyo cumplimiento se

busca. Cuando se pretende el cumplimiento de un acto administrativo se

debe anexar una copia del mismo. Si se trata de un acto administrativo

verbal se debe anexar al menos, prueba sumaria de su existencia; 

_ La narración de los hechos que constituyen el posible incumplimiento; 

_ La indicación de la autoridad o del particular que han incurrido en el probable

Incumplimiento 

_ La prueba de la constitución de renuencia. Tal prueba se constituye con la

demostración de que se ha pedido el cumplimiento de la norma o del acto

administrativo en cuestión y de que la autoridad o el particular concernidos

han rehusado dar aplicación a tal ley o acto. Se puede prescindir de este

requisito cuando se trate de evitar un perjuicio irremediable. En este caso,

las circunstancias deben estar sustentadas en la demanda; 

_ La enunciación de las pruebas que se solicitan y de aquellas que se pretende

hacer valer.

 

_ La manifestación de que no se ha ejercido la acción de cumplimiento por los

mismos hechos o derechos ante otra autoridad. Se entiende que esta

manifestación se hace bajo la gravedad del juramento.

La solicitud se debe presentar por escrito, excepto que el solicitante no sepa escribir,

sea menor de edad o se encuentre en situación de extrema urgencia.

¿Qué característica tiene el trámite de la acción de cumplimiento?

El trámite de la acción de cumplimiento tiene un carácter preferencial. Por lo tanto,

el juez que debe decidir sobre la misma tiene la obligación de posponer cualquier

otro asunto, excepto que se trate de una acción de tutela.

El juez debe decidir si admite o rechaza la respectiva demanda dentro de los tres

días siguientes a su presentación. Si la solicitud careciere de alguno de los

elementos que debe contener, el juez prevendrá al solicitante para que la corrija en

el término de dos días. Si vencido este plazo el solicitante no ha atendido dicho

requerimiento, la demanda será rechazada.

En todo caso, el juez deberá decidir si concede o niega la acción de cumplimiento

dentro de los 20 días siguientes a la admisión de la solicitud de cumplimiento. 

¿Cuál es el contenido de la sentencia que resuelve favorablemente una

acción de cumplimiento? 

La sentencia que resuelve favorablemente una acción de cumplimiento deberá

contener, entre otros, los siguientes elementos: 

_ La orden de cumplir el deber omitido 

_ El señalamiento del plazo dentro del cual se debe cumplir el deber omitido.

Tal plazo no puede exceder de diez días. Estos se cuentan a partir de la

fecha en la cual quede ejecutoriado el fallo. 

_ La orden para que la autoridad o autoridades correspondientes investiguen y

establezcan las responsabilidades penales o disciplinarias en que hubiera

podido incurrir la persona renuente. 

_ La condena en costas si a ello hubiere lugar.

Minuta Acción de Cumplimiento (Descargar)

Ley 393/97 (Descargar)

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